Japan The Kofun period ca. The mounds contained large stone burial chambers, many of which were shaped like keyholes and some of which were surrounded by moats. By the late Kofun period, the distinctive burial chambers, originally used by the ruling elite, also were built for commoners. During the Kofun period, a highly aristocratic society with militaristic rulers developed.
Bestor, and Akiko Yamagata This Handbook is intended as an interdisciplinary reference work for a broad international audience of those interested in the culture and society of contemporary Japan — university-level readers, professionals, and the general reading public seeking accurate information and thoughtful perspectives.
To serve that end we have assembled a distinguished group of twenty-two international contributors of diverse disciplinary backgrounds, whose current research and teaching specialties span broad arrays of topics on contemporary Japan.
Contributors to the volume include Australian, European, Japanese, North American, and Southeast Asian scholars of Japan, all of whom have engaged in extensive fieldwork in Japan during their lengthy research careers.
Since the Handbook is intended primarily as an introductory resource for readers who are not specialists on Japan, the majority of the contributions are from non-Japanese scholars who are regularly engaged in the cross-cultural translation and analysis of Japanese culture and society for non-Japanese audiences.
Our goal for the Handbook is to provide broad introductions to many significant phenomena, institutions, and directions in Japanese culture and society today, and to point readers to yet other areas they may explore. Each chapter is intended as an overview on a specific subject, outlining principal trends, issues, and debates relevant to its central topic.
A conscious strategy in the Handbook has been to place contemporary Japanese social and cultural phenomena in the spotlight and to keep disciplinary or theoretical perspectives in Diversifying hoikuen offerings to drive japan essay background. Our aim is a narrative, in each chapter and through the volume as a whole, which illuminates issues and questions pertinent to current scholarship on Japan, in a form that is accessible to readers who may have little previous background on either Japan or the disciplinary and theoretical concerns that currently dominate scholarly discourse in the social sciences and humanities.
Temporally, the focus of these chapters is on contemporary Japan. In general, the essays take the end of World War II as the starting point. The drive toward modernization and Westernization after the end of Tokugawa shogunal rule included, along with the embrace of European legal and education models, the codification of gender roles and family structure as well as the systematization of a national language and state religion, whose ramifications stretched long into and past the decades of postwar growth.
The flows of continuity notwithstanding, contemporary Japanese culture and society have been shaped in response to a number of radical shocks or historical disjunctures.
There is no smooth narrative of Japanese culture and society over the past years, and any account has to consider or reflect the breaks as much as the continuities. There are several such periods of transformation that figure prominently across the chapters in this Handbook.
The first fundamental transition, which set Japan on the course of becoming a modern nation, was the Meiji Restoration ofin which the Tokugawa shogunal government which had ruled Japan for more than years was replaced by a regime centered on the emperor and determined to defend Japanese national sovereignty and cultural integrity by the rapid adoption and adaptation of Western technologies and institutions in the pursuit of equal standing with Western nations.
During the Meiji period —the government largely succeeded in these goals. For the purposes of talking about contemporary Japan, its defeat in was another sharp break. World War II devastated vast areas of the country, especially urban regions. Many social institutions, practices, and public attitudes were also radically realigned in an effort to break away from the prewar and wartime social norms of authoritarian militarism and rigid hierarchy in the service of imperialism.
In the wake of these changes, for a society transformed but not shattered by the war, the s were an era of national rebuilding and laid the foundations for an ethic of hard work, cooperation, and conformity that characterized much of Japanese society throughout most of the remainder of the twentieth century.
In some respects the prosperity of the s reversed some of these issues. Notable strides were made in reducing pollution and improving public amenities.
And, with affluence, more and 2 Introduction more Japanese adopted lifestyles similar to those of middle-class urban consumers in other industrialized societies. For a time, Japan looked to have a Midas touch. However, the government, in the hands of the Liberal Democratic Party LDP sincedid little to rein in this speculative economy, and the institutional structures of government bureaucracies and businesses alike remained locked in the rigid hierarchical structures developed in the s.
The media focuses on crisis after crisis to decry the disarray of contemporary society, the failure of educational institutions to prepare young people for the changing future, the failure of the economy to provide jobs, the failure of the government to be able to respond quickly and effectively to natural disasters, like the Great Hanshin Earthquake, or the failure of young Japanese to embrace the kinds of lives and aspirations held dear by their parents and grandparents.
These shifts in Japanese society during and since the final decades of the twentieth century and their implications have been central concerns in Japan, and many chapters in this volume deal with societal and individual responses to them, considering how these responses have intersected with notions about Japanese society, culture, the nation, and their relationship to individuals, families, and communities.
Currently, Japan has the highest percentage of elderly and the second longest life expectancy in the world, coupled with one of the lowest fertility rates, whose fall below the replacement rate of 2.We will write a custom essay sample on Australia Pre-Primary Education Industry specifically for you.
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habibbd pfmlures.com [email protected] Blogger 6 1 25 tag:pfmlures.com,blogpost We hope that these chapters will be springboards to further research on other aspects of Japan and that each essay will pique the reader’s interest to pursue further reading, online exploration, and reflections.
The relentless drive toward economic growth had a broad social and political impact. First, rapid economic growth restored a.
Rising Awareness and Private Sector Traction to Drive Asia Pre-School and Childcare Industry: Ken Research The demand for the pre-primary education and childcare has increased steadily in the span of last five years () in various countries in the Asia Pacific region. Routledge Handbook of Japanese Culture and Society The Routledge Handbook of Japanese Culture and Society is an interdisciplinary resource that focuses on contemporary Japan and the social and cultural trends that are important at the beginning of the twenty-first century.