In these chapters as in other chapters of the bookZinn is arguing that the United States has been a country that has oppressed various members of its society. In this answer, I will give only a brief summary of each chapter since no more will These seven chapters cover a variety of different subjects. In this answer, I will give only a brief summary of each chapter since no more will fit in the space provided.
Summary Analysis was a bad year for the people of the United States: Between andsteam and electricity became the key forms of power, and urban centers grew exponentially. Furthermore, much of the growth that the U. Railroad companies joined the East and West Coasts together, but only by underpaying laborers and overvaluing their own services.
Much as the expansion of the Western, industrialized world hinged upon the subjugation of the Native American population, Zinn argues that the expansion of the American industrial state in the second half of the 19th century hinged upon the subjugation and exploitation of the working class.
The divide between rich and poor widened during this period—on one hand, industry generated tremendous wealth for the richest Americans; on the other, it forced poor Americans to take lower wages for exhausting work.
Morgan and John Rockefeller. Morgan began his career by selling rifles to Union soldiers for a big profit—despite the fact that the rifles were defectives. Rockefeller put his competitors out of business by making illegal agreements with railroad companies.
The people who became wealthy and powerful during the second half of the 19th century were often highly unethical people, who made their fortunes by deceiving and, in some cases, hurting other people. S government behaved almost exactly as Karl Marx predicted: Under the leadership of Grover Cleveland, for example, the government bought steel at artificially high prices from Andrew Carnegie, the most powerful steel baron of the era.
Cleveland vetoed bills intended to help struggling farmers, claiming that he opposed federal aid; yet, the Howard zinn chapter 12 thesis year, he paid federal bondholders a bonus of 45 million dollars.
Karl Marx was a philosopher and social critic who wrote most of his books in the midth century. In his magnum opus, Capital, Marx argued that the main purpose of government in a capitalist society was to ensure that the rich and powerful maintained their wealth and power.
Active Themes Related Quotes with Explanations It was also during the Cleveland administration that Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act ofwhich supposedly regulated railroads in order to protect consumer interests.
Other reforms of the era, such as the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, which ostensibly prevented the existence of large monopolies, were billed as measures intended to protect American consumers against monopoly.
However, inthe Supreme Court interpreted the Act to mean that it had no power to break up manufacturing monopolies—meaning that the Court did nothing to break up the monopolistic organizations of Rockefeller, Carnegie, or Morgan.
As Zinn sees it, the overall purpose of the federal government and the court system is to preserve property, meaning that most policy had the overall effect of protecting the fortunes of robber barons, at the expense of the American people.
The Supreme Court justices of the era hailed from upper-class backgrounds and were committed to the idea that the law should protect private property, even if doing so hurts the community. Many Supreme Court justices of the era like those of the present day attended schools founded by robber barons.
Were they just bad people? In effect, the Supreme Court justices may have ruled in favor of big business because their educations had trained them, in many subtle ways, to accept the status quo and be skeptical of change. Active Themes In response to the growing uniformity of the education system, there arose a tradition of dissent and unorthodoxy.
Figures like Henry George, a self-educated worker from Philadelphia, argued that land was the basis of all wealth, and that it should be monopolized to prevent the growth of inequality in America. Other intellectuals supported Socialism as a means of correcting corruption and inequality.
Active Themes The late 19th century also saw an increase in immigration and the fragmentation of the working class. Immigrants of different ethnicities competed for many of the same jobs, which drove wages down and led different groups to resent one another.
At the same time that the corporate world was becoming more powerful, the working classes were becoming more internally divided.
Instead of directing their hatred at the Establishment that conspired to keep them powerless, immigrant populations hated each other for driving down wages. As Zinn has already shown, racism and prejudice usually have the effect of strengthening the elite.
Active Themes As the situation of the working class became increasingly bleak, unions became increasingly radical in the solutions they proposed. Inthe AFL organized a series of strikes across the nation in support of the eight-hour work day. The growing radicalism and energy of the American labor movement reflects the dire economic conditions of the country in the late 19th century.
Immigrants and poor people gravitated towards Socialism, Communism, and Anarchism because these ideologies represented alternatives to capitalist exploitation. Active Themes The military and police responded brutally to the labor movement. Afterwards, four anarchists were blamed for the crime and executed.Chapter#9- Slavery without Submission, Emancipation without Freedom A.
Thesis Statement: In this Chapter, Zinn argues that in order for society should totally change its way into turning into a nation without slavery, something compelling needed to happen, and whichever way it would not be a smooth procedure%(4).
A People's History: Chapter 12 The Empire and the People By: Pilar Martinez, Shaniece Alexander, and Felipe Pedroza.
-Chapter 12 of Howard Zinn's "A People's History" pertains to the expansion of the United States and foreign relations between the United States and other countries, mainly Cuba and the Phillipines, during the s and s.
When thinking about Chapter 3, the main thing to remember is that Howard Zinn writes from a Marxist perspective. This fact helps us understand the main idea and thesis of this chapter. Howard Zinn Introduction Howard Zinn born August 24, , was a very inspirational man in his time.
He was a author, professor, historian and activist. He was a author, professor, historian and activist. 12 Comments When reading through the first chapter of his book, which lines do you think best explain or express Howard Zinn’s central thesis for A People’s History of the Untied States?
(Please note the page and paragraph numbers). Get an answer for 'Can someone please summarize in detail chapters for the book A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn?' and find homework help for other A People's History.